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Depression During Pregnancy Third Trimester
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M. Carmen Miguez M. Carmen Miguez Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar * and M. Belen Vasquez M. Belen Vasquez Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar
Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry; Department of Psychology University of Santiago de Compostela; 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
The Effects Of Covid 19 On Stress, Depression, And Anxiety In Pregnant And Postpartum Women
Received: 20 May 2021 / Revised: 15 June 2021 / Accepted: 21 June 2021 / Published: 24 June 2021
The objectives of this study were to determine possible trends in depression and major depression during pregnancy and to identify associated and predictive variables (social, pregnancy-related, psychosocial) in each trimester of pregnancy. first pregnancy A longitudinal study was conducted with 569 pregnant Hispanic women during the second and third trimesters. Depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale and a clinical interview. Measures of anxiety and stress are also included. first, The risk of depression in the second and third trimesters was 23.4%; 17.0% and 21.4%, respectively, and major depression was 5.1%, 4.0% and 4.7%. Thus, the prevalence of both conditions is highest in the first and third trimesters. Trajectories of probable depression and major depression are similar during pregnancy. All psychological variables examined were correlated with conditions across trimesters; Stress is always taken as a predictor. Correlations between the two depression conditions with other variables were similar. Two exceptions were: previous abortion, which was only associated with possible first-trimester depression and was also predictive. It is only associated with complications during pregnancy and possible major depression in the third trimester. These findings should be considered in planned pregnancy follow-ups and necessary interventions should be initiated in the first trimester.
Depression is one of the most common mental disorders, affecting twice as many men as women. Childbirth is a physiological, hormones mental Women’s depression is particularly high during pregnancy and postpartum, as it is a life event associated with many family and social changes.
Antenatal depression receives less attention than postpartum depression. Depression during pregnancy has important consequences for mothers and their children. Depression during pregnancy, in particular, is a major consequence of depression during pregnancy for mothers that the condition continues into the postpartum period. Depression during pregnancy is a major risk factor for postpartum depression [4, 5, 6]. Delayed intrauterine growth in children of pregnant women ; Premature birth [7, 8, 9, 10] and gestational age [9, 10] found small children. are the leading causes of infant and child morbidity and mortality.
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On the other hand, Because most studies are cross-sectional, it is not possible to determine the trajectory of depression throughout pregnancy, and there is a paucity of longitudinal studies examining the incidence of depression during each pregnancy. The prevalence of depression during pregnancy may lead to misrepresentation. Analyzing the trajectory of depression in the same sample of pregnant women is important because cross-sectional studies may provide different results because they use different assessment tools.
The few existing longitudinal studies have produced mixed results regarding the trajectories of depression. in particular, The first and third trimesters of pregnancy are the most common periods for depression [13, 14, 15, 16] and major depression , but no values in the third trimester. arrived. First quarter watchers. However,  In a study conducted in China, the risk of depression was higher in the first and third trimesters. The prevalence rate is higher in the latter than in the first. A similar pattern was found in the Great Depression in Italy. In all cases the depression path is V-shaped. On the contrary, A study from India  reported the opposite trend (/) with the highest prevalence in the second trimester and the lowest prevalence in the third trimester. On the other hand, A study from Korea  found the presence of probable depression between the first and third trimester (/).
Because there are few longitudinal studies of the prevalence of depression during pregnancy before the trimester, In each case, little is known about the associated variables. in particular, We did not find in the literature an analysis of variables associated with antenatal depression in each trimester. Therefore, it is impossible to know whether there are differences associated with depression throughout pregnancy or whether there are other factors that are specific to a particular trimester and disappear during the rest of the pregnancy. The identification of such associations allows the implementation of preventive and intervention measures adapted to each stage. In this regard, the variables most associated with antenatal depression were sociodemographic; Obstetrical and psychological differences . in particular, Antenatal depression is associated with higher levels of education [15, 22, 23, 24, 25] and socioeconomic level [17, 22, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29], Unemployment [22, 30, 31] and pregnancy. . Unplanned [15, 17, 19, 25, 27, 29, 30 31 32 33 34]. Regarding psychological variables, history of depression [ 17 , 23 , 26 , 31 ] and anxiety [ 26 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 ] or stress [ 33 , 34 , 36 ] are the most common variables. It is often associated with depression during pregnancy. On the other hand, Study results for variables such as age and parity were contradictory. in particular, Various studies have shown that young age [18, 37], but in others it is associated with older age [23, 29] is associated with Similarly, equality, preference  and diversity [19, 23, 26, 31, 32] have been associated with the presence of postpartum depression.
Observation of women’s depression during pregnancy allows us to identify the levels and differences most associated with the presence of depression in each trimester. This prevents depression and its sequelae from extending into the postpartum period by providing effective support tailored to the actual needs of expectant mothers.
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Therefore, The objectives of this study are firstly; To determine the trajectory of probable depression as assessed by the self-report instrument (EPDS) and major depression as assessed by the Antenatal Clinical Interview (SCID). Second, To identify variables associated with potential depression and major depression (sociological, pregnancy-related psychological) during each trimester of pregnancy. The study aims to answer the following specific questions.
This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and approval was obtained from the ethics committees of all participating institutions. This was a longitudinal study with three assessment waves: first trimester of pregnancy ( M = 10.87 weeks, SD = 2.36); 2nd trimester of pregnancy (M = 20.69 weeks, SD = 1.21) and 3rd trimester of pregnancy twice (M = 33.28, weeks; SD = 2.05). Pregnant women attending a public health service in northwest Spain were recruited during the first trimester of pregnancy (n=620). Women must be at least 18 years old; Women were eligible to participate if they spoke Spanish during the first trimester of pregnancy and were willing to participate in prenatal follow-up assessments. Exclusion criteria are:
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