How Did Hitler Come To Power In Germany – Adolf Hitler, the leader of the German Nazi Party, was the most powerful and famous dictator of the 20th century. After serving with the German Army in World War I, Hitler used the economic problems, popular unrest, and political turmoil during the Weimar Republic to rise up the ranks of the Nazi Party.
In 1933, Hitler took absolute power in Germany in a series of atrocities and violence, including the Reichstag Fire and the Night of the Long Knives. World War II began when Germany invaded Poland in 1939, and by 1941, the Nazis had used the “Blitzkrieg” military strategy to conquer most of Europe. Hitler’s brutality against the Jews and the excessive persecution of the Aryans led to the murder of nearly six million Jews, along with other victims of the Holocaust. With the tide of war turning against him, Hitler committed suicide in a village in Berlin in April 1945.
How Did Hitler Come To Power In Germany
Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 in Braunaum Inn, a small Austrian town near the Austro-German border. After his father, Alois, retired as a civil servant, young Adolf spent most of his childhood in Linz, the capital of Upper Austria.
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Not wanting to follow in his father’s footsteps as a civil servant, he struggled in middle school and eventually dropped out. Alois died in 1903, and Adolf pursued his dream of becoming an artist, although he graduated from the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna.
After the death of his mother, Clara, in 1908, Hitler moved to Vienna, where he collected and sold paintings of scenes and monuments. A recluse, aloof and reader, Hitler became interested in politics during his years in Vienna, and developed many of the ideas that formed the Nazi ideology.
In 1913, Hitler moved to Munich in the German city of Bavaria. When World War I began the following summer, he successfully petitioned the Bavarian king to allow him to volunteer in an infantry unit.
Stationed in Belgium in October 1914, Hitler served in the Great War and received two decorations for bravery, including the rare Iron Cross, which he wore for the rest of his life.
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Hitler was injured twice during the conflict: in 1916 he was wounded in the leg during the Battle of the Somme, and in 1918 a British gas attack near Ypres temporarily blinded him. A month later, he was recovering in a hospital in Passevac in the northeast. of Berlin, when news of the Armistice and Germany’s defeat in World War I arrived.
Like many Germans, Hitler believed that the country’s catastrophic defeat could be attributed not to the Allies but to the country’s insufficient domestic “suppliers” – a myth that plagued the Weimar government after the war. and set the stage for the rise of Hitler.
After Hitler returned to Munich in late 1918, he joined the small German Workers’ Party, which aimed to unite the interests of the working class with strong German nationalism. His eloquence and intelligence helped him rise to the top of the party, and in 1920 he left the army to manage its propaganda efforts.
In the classic sin of Hitler’s propaganda, the German Reich, or the Nazi Party as it was renamed, adopted a version of the swastika—an ancient sacred symbol of Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism—as its symbol. Engraved in a white circle on a red background, Hitler’s swastika will carry a formidable symbolic power for years to come.
Hitler And Nazi History: How He Came To Power In 1920
By the end of 1921, Hitler led the growing Nazi Party, which was largely satisfied with the punitive laws of the Weimar Republic and the Treaty of Versailles. Many disaffected former army officers from Munich would join the Nazis, most notably Ernst Röhm, who took over the “strong-arm” groups—known as the Straumbteilung (SA)—that Hitler used to attack meetings. party and opposition.
On the evening of November 8, 1923, members of the SA and others flocked to a large bar hall where another right-wing leader was addressing the crowd. Armed with a revolver, Hitler announced the start of a national revolution and led the marchers into the center of Munich, where they called a gun battle with the police.
Hitler fled immediately, but he and other rebel leaders were later arrested. Although it failed spectacularly, the Beer Hall Putsch established Hitler as a national figure, and (in the eyes of many) as a right-wing nationalist hero.
Tried for rebellion, Hitler was sentenced to five years in prison, but would only serve nine months in the relative comfort of Landsberg Castle. During this period, he began directing the book that would become “Mein Kampf” (“My Struggle”), the first volume of which was published in 1925.
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In it, Hitler expanded on the nationalist, anti-Semitic ideas he had begun to develop in Vienna in his 20s, and set out the plans for Germany—and the world—he came to create once he come to power.
Hitler would complete the second volume of “Mein Kampf” after his release, while resting in the mountain village of Berchtesgaden. It sold moderately at first, but when Hitler grew up, it became the best-selling book in Germany after the Bible. By 1940, it had sold nearly 6 million copies there.
Hitler’s second book, “The Jew’s Butch,” was written in 1928 and contained his views on foreign policy. Due to poor initial sales of “Mein Kampf” it was not published during his lifetime. The first English translations of “Butch Jew” did not appear until 1962 and were published under the title “Hitler’s Secret Book”.
Obsessed with the idea of race and the “purity” of race, Hitler saw a physical order that raised the so-called “Aryan race” to the top.
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For him, the unity of the Volk (German people) would find its true form not in democracy or parliament, but in the supreme leader or Führer.
It also addressed the need for Lebensraum (or living space): to fulfill its destiny, Germany must occupy the lands of the East that the “weak” Slavic peoples had now occupied – including Austria, the Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia), Poland, and Russia. .
Economic recovery restored some popular support for the Weimar Republic when Hitler left prison, and support for right-wing causes such as Nazism seemed to be waning.
Over the next few years, Hitler laid low and worked on reforming and reforming the Nazi Party. He formed the Hitler Youth to organize youth, and created the Schutzstaffel (SS) as a more reliable alternative to the SA.
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Members of the SS wore black and swore loyalty to Hitler. (After 1929, under Heinrich Himmler, the SS would grow from a group of 200 men to a power that dominated Germany and terrorized the rest of Europe during World War II.)
Hitler spent much of his time in Berchtesgaden during these years, and was joined by his aunt, Angela Rauble, and her two daughters. After Hitler fell in love with his beautiful blonde niece, Geli Rauble, jealousy of her possessions led to his suicide in 1931.
Devastated by the loss, Hitler considered prison the only true love affair in his life. He soon began a long-term relationship with Eva Braun, a shop assistant from Munich, but refused to marry her.
The Great Depression that began in 1929 also threatened the stability of the Weimar Republic. Determined to gain political power to effect his revolution, Hitler rejected Nazi support among German conservatives, including military, business, and industrial leaders.
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In 1932, Hitler ran for president against war hero Paul von Hindenburg, and won 36.8 percent of the vote. With the government in disarray, the three generals who succeeded him failed to govern, and at the end of January 1933, Hindenburg named the 43-year-old Hitler as general, which caused great surprise. is an inevitable leader.
January 30, 1933 saw the birth of the Third Reich, or as the Nazis called it the “thousand-year Reich” (after Hitler had boasted that it would last for a thousand years).
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Although the Nazis could not get more than 37 percent of the vote at the height of their popularity in 1932, Hitler was able to gain absolute power in Germany because of the division and disunity among many who opposed Nazism.
Hitler’s Rise To Power: 1933 1934
After a devastating fire at the German parliament, the Reichstag, in February 1933—probably the work of the Dutch Communist Party, although later evidence indicated that the Reichstag had been set on fire by the Nazis—Hitler had an excuse to stir up trouble and violence against his government increased. opposition.
On March 23, the Reichstag passed the Consent Act, giving Hitler full authority and celebrating National Socialism’s unification with the old German establishment (ie, Hindenburg).
That July, the government passed a law stating that the Nazi Party “is the only political party in Germany,” and within a few months all non-Nazi groups, trade unions, and other organizations were suspended.
In 1933, Germany was militarily weak and politically isolated from its hostile neighbors (France and Poland). In a famous speech in May 1933, Hitler made a shocking attack, saying that Germany had supported extermination.
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