What Is It Called When You Have No Hair – Alexithymia (/ə ˌ lɛksɪ ˈθ aɪm iə / ə-LEK -sih-THY -mee-ə), also known as emotional blindness,
There is no scientific evidence to classify it as a personality trait, clinical symptom, or mental disorder.
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Alexithymia is very common among people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with a prevalence of 50% to 85%.
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Alexithymia occurs in about 10% of the population and often co-occurs with various psychiatric disorders, particularly neurodevelopmental disorders.
Difficulty understanding and discussing emotions may be expressed at lower levels than those associated with certain cultural norms of masculinity, such as sadness being a female emotion. This condition, known as male alexithymia, can occur in both sexes.
The term alexithymia was coined in 1973 by psychotherapists John Case Nemia and Peter Sifnios to describe a specific psychological disorder.
Its etymology comes from the Greek unsit. The word is formed by combining the unique alpha prefix ἀ- (a-, meaning ‘not’) with λέξις (lexis, meaning ‘words’) and θῡμός (thȳmós, doting ‘disposition,’ ‘feeling,’ or ‘rage.’) The word can be compared to “dyslexia” in its structure.
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The label reflects the difficulty people with the condition have in recognizing, expressing and describing their emotional experiences. Non-medical terms such as “numb” and “numb” are also used to describe similar conditions.
Alexithymia is considered a personality trait that puts affected people at risk for other medical and psychiatric illnesses, and makes these people less likely to respond to conventional treatments for these problems.
It is a multidimensional personality trait that varies profoundly from person to person. A person’s alexithymia score can be measured with questions such as the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20).
In research done, dense imaginative processes, defined as a lack of spontaneous thought, when measured, do not correlate statistically with other components of alexithymia.
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Such results have led to a debate about whether IMP is actually a component of alexithymia.
For example, in 2017, Preece and colleagues introduced an attitude-appraisal model of alexithymia, where they removed IMP from the definition and suggested that alexithymia should be made up of only DIF, DDF, and EOT. Failure to process emotions.
These major differences in the definition of alexithymia, related to the inclusion or exclusion of IMP, correspond to differences in the psychophysical and cognitive-behavioral conceptualizations of alexithymia; Where psychoanalytic formulations td consistently emphasize IMP,
In practice, since the controlled assessment procedures were removed from earlier versions of the TAS-20 in the 1990s,
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Most widely used alexithymia test instruments (and thus most alexithymia research studies) have only assessed constructs based on DIF, DDF, and EOT.
Regarding the relevance of alexithymic deficits to the processing of negative (eg, sadness) or positive (eg, happiness) emotions, the PAQ is the only measure of alexithymia capable of valence-specific assessment of alexithymia in both negative and positive emotions.
Valid work with the PAQ emphasizes that alexithymic deficits in emotion processing often result from both negative and positive emotions, although individuals typically report more difficulty with negative emotions.
Studies (using the alexithymia assessment scales DIF, DDF and EOT) suggest that the prevalence of high alexithymia is less than 10% of the population.
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An unusual finding suggests that the prevalence of alexithymia may be higher among men than women, which may be explained by the difficulty in “expressing feelings” for some men, but not the difficulty in “recognizing feelings” that both men and women show. Similar skills.
Work with the PAQ suggests that alexithymia is characterized similarly (i.e., has the same structure and components) across groups of different cultures and across different age groups.
Psychologist R. Michael Bagby and psychologist Graeme J. Taylor argued that alexithymia constructs are inversely related to psychological theories.
And “there is strong empirical support that alexithymia is a stable personality trait and not merely the result of psychological stress”.
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Common deficits may include difficulties in perceiving, processing, expressing, and processing one’s emotions, often characterized by a lack of understanding of the emotions of others; Difficulty distinguishing between emotions and emotional stimuli;
Body language confusion is often related to emotions; Some dreams or nightmares due to restricted imagination; and concrete, realistic, logical thinking, often without emotional responses to problems. People with alexithymia also report vivid and realistic dreams, such as shopping or eating.
Clinical experience suggests that the structure of dreams rather than the characteristics of alexithymia dictates the ability to recall them.
Some alexithymic individuals may appear to contradict the symptoms mentioned above, as they may experience chronic dysphoria or may display outbursts of crying or anger.
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However, questioning often reveals that they cannot describe their feelings or are confused by questions that ask about specific feelings.
According to Hry Crystal, people who exhibit alexithymia think in a reactive way and may seem detached from reality. However, in psychiatry, mental disorders describe trivial, chronological events, responses, and occurrences of everyday life with rare detail.
Generally, these people may appear, but do not always look and act like robots. These problems greatly limit their response to psychoanalytic psychotherapy; Mental illness or substance abuse usually worsens when these individuals receive psychiatric treatment.
A common misconception about alexithymia is that people who suffer from it are unable to verbalize their feelings and may not be able to admit that they have feelings. Before coining the term, Sifnios (1967) noted that patients often referred to things like anxiety or depression. What set them apart was their inability to go beyond a few limited adjectives like “happy” or “unhappy” when describing these feelings.
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The main issue is that people with alexithymia have an emotional imbalance that hinders their ability to differentiate and express themselves to others.
When depression and other confounding factors are controlled for, it contributes to emotional detachment and difficulties relating to others.
A 2004 study using the TAS-20 found that 85% of adults with autism fell into the “no autism” category and nearly half fell into the “severe autism” category; In contrast, only 17% of the elderly had “problems” and none were “severely disturbed”.
Fitzgerald and Belgrove pointed out that, “Like alexithymia, Asperger’s syndrome is characterized by major disturbances in speech and language and social relationships.”
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Hill & Perthous agreed with Fitzgerald and Belgrove (2006) and countered that “there is some overlap between alexithymia and ASDs”. They also pointed to studies that revealed a negative theory of mental ability in alexithymia, shared etiology, and neurobiological evidence pointing to similar social skill deficits.
The exact nature of the link is uncertain. Alexithymic symptoms in AS may be associated with clinical depression or anxiety;
On the other hand, while the alexithymia total score and difficulties in understanding emotions and external thoughts were found to be significantly associated with ADHD, the alexithymia total score, difficulties in describing emotions and difficulties in interpretation were not. While mood problems were significantly associated with symptoms of major depression and impulsivity, there was no significant association between alexithymia and attention-deficit symptoms.
There are many psychological problems associated with alexithymia. One study found that 41% of US Vietnam War veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were alexithymic.
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Higher levels of alexithymia among mothers with interpersonal violence-related PTSD have been found to be associated with less caregiving in other studies.
This latter study suggested that alexithymia should be assessed and reassessed in relation to the child’s social and emotional development when treating adults with PTSD.
Alexithymia is characterized by a large number of people with brain injuries such as stroke or traumatic brain injury.
Alexithymia is also associated with disorders such as headaches, lower back pain, irritable bowel syndrome, asthma, nausea, allergies, and fibromyalgia.
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Inability to suppress emotions is one possibility to explain why some people with alexithymia tend to relieve themselves of unpleasant emotions through compulsive behaviors such as overeating, drug abuse, sexual misconduct, or anorexia nervosa.
Failure to mentally manage emotions can result in long-term hyperactivity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and neuroendocrine systems, leading to physiological disorders.
Alexisomia is a medical concept that refers to cognitive problems and the manifestation of physiological, or physical, symptoms.
This concept was first proposed in 1979 by Dr.
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Previous studies have shown evidence that interhemispheric transfer may be deficient among people with alexithymia; That is, sensory information from the right hemisphere of the brain is not properly transferred to the language areas of the left hemisphere, as this can be caused by a reduction in the corpus callosum, often in children with severe mental retardation.
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