What Is The Back Part Of The Brain Called

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What Is The Back Part Of The Brain Called
What Is The Back Part Of The Brain Called

What Is The Back Part Of The Brain Called – The human brain is part of the central nervous system. The human brain is about the size of two clenched fists and weighs about 1.6 kg (3.5 lb) in men and 1.45 kg in women.

. The difference between the sexes is proportional to body size, not intelligence. The organs of the central nervous system (CNS) can be divided into two groups, the brain and the spinal cord.

What Is The Back Part Of The Brain Called

What Is The Back Part Of The Brain Called

The cerebrum is the large, outer part of the brain. The cerebrum is about 83% of the total volume of the brain and consists of two parts called the cerebral hemispheres. Each hemisphere is marked by dense ridges called gyri (singular, gyrus) separated by shallow grooves called sulci (singular, sulcus). The deep median groove, a longitudinal fissure, divides the right and left hemispheres. Below this fissure, the hemispheres are connected by a thick bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum—a prominent anatomical feature with a distinctive C-shape in sagittal section.

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The hemispheres of the brain control reasoning, thinking, emotions, and language. It is also responsible for (voluntary) muscle movement (throwing a ball, walking, eating, etc.) and for recognizing and interpreting sensory information such as sight, hearing, smell, touch and pain.

The cerebellum occupies the posterior cranial fossa below the brain, separated from it by the transverse cerebral fissure. It is also characterized by fissures, grooves, and gyri, called leaves of the cerebellum. The cerebellum is the second largest region of the brain, comprising about 10% of its volume, but containing more than 50% of its neurons.

The cerebellum is at the back of the brain. It helps coordinate movement. Cerebellum tumors can cause coordination problems when walking, problems with proper movement of the hands, arms, feet, and legs, problems with swallowing or simultaneous eye movements, and changes in the rhythm of talk.

The brain stem is the lower part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord. it contains bundles of very long nerve fibers that carry signals to muscles and senses, or senses, between the brain and the rest of the body; Special centers in the brain stem also help with breathing and heartbeat. Most of the cranial nerves (see figures 1 and 2) also originate at the root of the brain.

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The brain is defined as the entire brain except the cerebrum and cerebellum. Its major parts, from rostral to the nostrils to the tip of the tail, are the medulla, pons, and medulla oblongata. In a living person the brain is arranged like a vertical stem with the brain resting on top like a mushroom cap. Postmortem changes give a more oblique angle to the corpse and consequently in many medical examples. Towards the end, the cerebrum ends at the great opening of the skull, and the central nervous system continues below it as the spinal cord.

Answer to Objection 3: The brain, like the spinal cord, is made up of gray and white matter. Gray matter, the seat of neurosomes, dendrites and synapses, forms a surface layer called the cortex over the brain and cerebellum, and deeper masses called nuclei surrounded by white matter. White matter is deep into cortical gray in most of the brain, in contrast to the relationship between gray and white matter in the spinal cord. Like the spinal cord, the white matter is made up of tracts or bundles of axons, which here connect one part of the brain to another and the spinal cord.

During fetal development, the brain can be divided into five continuous parts (see Figure 3). From top to bottom they are:

What Is The Back Part Of The Brain Called

Note: (a) primary vesicles at 4 weeks. b) secondary vesicle at 5 weeks. c) A fully developed brain, color-coded to relate its structures to the secondary embryonic vesicle.

D Illustration Human Brain Inner Parts Anatomy For Medical Concept (brain Back Side) Stock Photo, Picture And Royalty Free Image. Image 153139942

The cerebrum, the upper and outer part of the brain, is made up of two cerebral hemispheres, and these hemispheres make up 83% of the total mass of the brain. they dominate the brain in such a way that many people use the name brain incorrectly, when they are specifically referring to the brain. The hemispheres of the brain cover the diencephalon and the brain stem is not unlike a mushroom cap that covers its top.

Various fissures found in and around the cerebral hemispheres separate the major parts of the brain from each other. The transverse cerebral fissure separates the cerebellar hemispheres from the lower cerebellum, while the median longitudinal fissure divides the right and left cerebral hemispheres. The brain consists of the superficial matter of the cerebral cortex from the gray matter, the white matter of the brain within it, and the deep gray matter, within the white matter of the brain.

The two hemispheres of the brain participate in primary functions, such as receiving and dividing sensory impulses, controlling skeletal muscles, and storing memory. however, in most people one side of the brain is the dominant hemisphere, and controls the ability to use and understand language; In most people, the left hemisphere dominates activities related to speech in speaking, writing, reading, and for many intellectual functions that require verbal, analytical;

And computer skills. In others, the right hemisphere is dominant for language-related abilities, or both hemispheres are equally dominant. Broca’s area of ​​the dominant hemisphere muscles that control speech functions.

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In addition to performing basic functions, the non-dominant hemisphere specializes in nonverbal functions, such as motor tasks that require orientation of the body in space, understanding and interpreting musical patterns, and nonverbal visual experiences. The non-dominant hemisphere also controls emotions and intuitive thinking. The nerve fibers of the corpus callosum that connect the cerebral hemispheres allow the dominant hemisphere to control the motor cortex of the non-dominant hemisphere. These fibers also transfer sensory information from the nondominant hemisphere to the dominant, where the information is used to make a decision.

Above the hemispheres of the brain there are many grooves (singular: sulcus, “groove”, “per”) They are important. Part of the deeper sulcus divides each hemisphere of the brain into five large lobes;

The frontal lobe is located deep in the frontal bone and fills the anterior cranial fossa. Posterior to the central sulcus, which separates the frontal from the parietal lobe. The precentral gyrus, which contains the primary motor cortex, is located anterior to the central sulcus.

What Is The Back Part Of The Brain Called

The frontal lobe contains the functional areas that initiate and organize planning, motor movement, and making eye movements and speech. The anterior part of the frontal cortex performs higher-order cognitive functions, such as thinking, reasoning, planning, working memory, and other executive functions.

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The parietal lobe extends posteriorly to the parietal bones from the central sulcus to the occipital sulcus. A lateral groove forms its lower border. The postcentral gyrus, just posterior to the central sulcus, contains the primary somatosensory cortex. The parietal lobe processes sensory stimuli providing (1) conscious awareness of general somatic sense; second, knowledge of places, sounds, and parts of the body; and third is speech comprehension.

The occipital lobe is located deep in the occipital bone, and forms the posterior part of the brain. It is separated from the parietal lobe by the parieto-occipital sulcus on the medial surface of the hemisphere. the occipital lobe contains the visual cortex.

The temporal lobe, on the lateral side of the hemisphere, is located in the middle of the cranial fossa, deep to the temporal bone. It is separated from the superior parietal and frontal lobes by the deep lateral sulcus. The temporal lobe consists of the auditory cortex and the olfactory cortex. He also has works of knowledge of things, words, and faces; speech understanding; rather than emotional response and memory.

The insula (“isula”) is located deep in the lateral sulcus and forms part of its area. The insula is covered by the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. The visceral sensory cortex for taste and general visceral sensations is in the insula.

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The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter because it contains cell bodies, neuron dendrites, and very short unmyelinated axons but no tract fibers. Although the cerebral cortex is only 2-4 mm thick, its many gyri and sulci triple its surface area to about 2500 cm2, the dimensions of a large desk calendar, and account for about 40% of the total mass in the brain. . .

The cerebral cortex contains 14 to 16 billion neurons and about 90% of the human cerebral cortex is a six-layered tissue, called the neocortex because of its recent evolutionary origin. The six layers of the neocortex, from one side of the brain to the other, vary in thickness, cellular composition, synaptic connections, neuron size, and distribution. distribution of axons. Layer IV is the thickest in the sensory region and layer V in the motor region, gr. All axons that leave the cortex and enter the white matter originate in layers III, V, and VI.

The cerebral cortex has two main types of neurons, called stellate and pyramidal cells

What Is The Back Part Of The Brain Called

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