What Is The Third Reich – When Hitler became president, on January 30, 1933, it was not on the basis of popular support, but as a result of the political machinations of Schleicher, Papen and the president’s son, Oskar von Hindenburg. Only Hitler, they believed, could bring about an alliance with Hugenberg’s DNVP and with the Center Party could have a majority in the Riksdag. They assured the president that he did not want that Hitler’s extremist ideas would be stopped by the fact that Papen would take the vice president and that some defense agencies would control important ministries, such as war, foreign affairs and economy. The Nazis themselves were limited to holding the Chancellorship and the insignificant Federal Ministry of the Interior. Like the Nazis, Hermann Göring was given the rank of minister, but he was not given a position; Nevertheless, he became Minister of the Interior of Prussia, which gave him control of the largest police force in Germany.
The Nazis preached a theory, National Socialism, which meant protecting the common man, whom they portrayed as a victim in a country controlled by Jews. The fight against anti-Semitism and the ideas of the greatness of the German nation was at the core of this idea, which in its details was also a book of grievances that had gathered in German society since November 1918. On the list there was shame associated with Versailles, but not far. behind it was hatred of big business, big banks, big warehouses and big workers, as well as resentment of the division and dysfunction that the political parties seemed to encourage.
What Is The Third Reich
(“My Struggle”, 1925), had clear signs of the nature of German politics and society that would take under the Nazis, but Hitler and his advertisers had clearly said that the change would be important and at the expense of the enemies of the German nations. The superior Germans of the nation were to be gathered into a close union
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, or a national society, where party and group differences would pass in the spirit of national harmony, a harmony that would not include people of inferior blood. This logical goal needed to be addressed to what the Nazis called the “Jewish problem.” It required a change in the process, more than a century old, of Jewish immigration in the so-called superior country of Germany and in the cultural and economic life of Germany. Regarding Germany’s role in international affairs, Hitler had always talked about Germany’s need for a living space (Lebensraum) in the east. First, however, was the continuing need to break the chains of the hated Treaty of Versailles.
Whether the Nazis would ever have a chance to achieve their goals depended, when Hitler became chancellor, on whether they would be able to strengthen their initial grip on the reins of power. Liberals, socialists and communists continued to oppose Hitler fiercely; important parts of business, the military and the churches, in different ways, were suspicious of the measures he could take. In the end it was a combination of Hitler’s bravery and brutality, the weakness of his opponents, and a series of fortunate events that allowed him to launch his totalitarian regime. When the Center Party refused to join the Nazi-DNVP coalition in January 1933, Hitler ordered elections for a new Reichstag. The election of 5 March 1933 was preceded by a brutal and violent campaign in which the Nazis led by Ernst Röhm were prominent. Hitler was also able to take advantage of the Reichstag fire (probably the work of a lone and confused Dutch communist) on February 27 to suspend civil rights and arrest communists and other opposition leaders. Despite this terrorist campaign, the Nazis did not get a majority, receiving only 43.9 percent of the total. However, the 8 percent obtained by the DNVP was enough for the two parties to have a majority in the Riksdag. At its first meeting on March 23, the new Reichstag—under intense pressure from the SA and SS (Schutzstaffel; “Protective Echelon”), the top Nazi military led by Heinrich Himmler—voted for the Enabling Act, which allowed Hitler to ignore it. the constitution and give his decrees the force of law. In this way, the Nazis established a government they called the Third Reich, which was supposed to be the successor of the Holy Roman Empire (First Reich) and the German Empire ruled by the Hohenzollerns from 1871 to 1918 (Second Reich).
Mandatory powers were the pseudo-legal basis on which Hitler carried out the first steps of the Nazi revolution. Within two weeks of the entry into force of the Enabling Act, Nazi governors were sent to bring the Confederate states into line, and a few months later the state itself was evacuated. On April 7, 1933, the Nazis began to purge the civil service, as well as universities, of communists, socialists, democrats and Jews. On May 2, the unions were dissolved and replaced by the so-called Nazi Workers’ Party. At this time, Göring had begun to transform the political body of the Prussian police into a secret political police, the Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei), to serve the Nazis, a process repeated by Himmler and the Bavarian police.
The brutality with which Hitler met any perceived challenge to his authority became very clear when, on 30 June 1934, he ordered the assassination of the SA leadership. Röhm’s street gang had provided useful muscle during the many years of the war movement, but their refusal to rule, Hitler feared, could invite the military to intervene and thus overthrow him. To avoid this possibility, Hitler enlisted the loyal Himmler, who used his SS during the so-called “Night of the Long Knives” to purge the SA of a dozen of its top leaders, including Hitler’s longtime friend Röhm. The final step in Hitler’s rise to power came on August 2, 1934, when, after the death of President Hindenburg, he seized the powers of the government and combined them with his own as chancellor. The final step came in February 1938 when Hitler assumed command of the three branches of the German army. “Fantastic … A brilliantly written, important and timely lesson” (Kirkus Review, starred review) History of the Third Reich – how Adolf Hitler and the Nazi elite rose from obscurity to power and plunged the world into World War. II.
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In “the definitive new volume on the subject” (Houston Press), Thomas Childers shows that the young Hitler became politically motivated and anti-Semitic while living on the fringes of society. Fueled by anger at the punitive measures imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles, he found his voice and attracted a loyal following.
As his views changed, Hitler attracted like-minded colleagues who formed the core of the nascent Nazi Party. Between 1924 and 1929, Hitler and his party went into the dark about German politics, but the onset of the Great Depression gave them an opportunity to go abroad. Hitler blamed Germany’s woes on the victorious Allies, Marxists, Jews and big business – and the political parties that represented them. By 1932, the Nazis had become the largest political party in Germany, and within six months they had transformed a dysfunctional regime into a totalitarian regime and begun the inexorable march to World War II and the Holocaust.
These are the tense moments that Childs brings to life: the unexpected rise of the Nazis and their consolidation of power once they’ve gained it. Based on a section of German literature rarely used by historians, The Third Reich is “a powerful … reminder of what happens when power is not contained” (San Francisco Book Review). This is the most comprehensive and readable one-volume history of Nazi Germany since the rise and fall of the Third Reich.
When Hitler returned to Landsberg prison on April 1, 1924, his old cell was waiting. He was released from prison for his trial.
The Third Reich In 100 Objects: A Material History Of Nazi Germany
Scurrilous street-corner agitator whose fame was largely confined to Bavaria. When he returned, he was the “martyr of Munich”, a hero of the great right. The disastrous putsch had been widely ridiculed as a boring, almost accidental accident, but Hitler’s performance in court turned him into a national figure. He was now Landsberg’s “prisoner of honor”, popular with other conspirators, prison guards and prison officials.
In the wing of the Landsberg prison reserved for political prisoners – something that Bavaria, given its history of post-war violence, was full of – Hitler was again placed in the seventh cell on the top floor, reserved for special prisoners. His cell was small but beautiful, with a table, two chairs, a cupboard and a bed. Light poured in from two large windows, and although Hitler complained about the bars, his view was of bushes, trees and hills. Visitors brought geraniums and other flowers.
Under the circumstances, he had everything he could ask for. He wears his own clothes, usually lederhosen and a Tyrolean jacket, a white shirt and sometimes a tie. Telegrams and letters from
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