Where Can You Buy A Marmoset Monkey – Marmosets and tamarins are small squirrel-like monkeys with many characteristics that are uncommon among primates. Arboreal marmosets have claws that help them cling to tree trunks. Geoffroy’s marmosets are omnivores that live in lowland rainforests in Brazil.
Men and women look alike. Geoffroy marmosets have a dark brown coat with long pointed ears. They have a white forehead, cheeks and neck, with dark brown underparts and a black tail with a light wall.
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They measure about 8 inches (20 cm) in length with a tail about 11 inches (29 cm) and weigh between 9 and 13 ounces (260 and 380 grams). Scientists believe they evolved to take advantage of an insect diet and, as part of the process, became smaller.
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Marmosets and tamarins eat fruit, flowers and nectar, as well as prey on animals including frogs, snails, lizards, spiders and insects. They are known to take advantage of pests that have been disturbed by military attacks and swarms.
Marmosets also eat tree glue, which is produced by the tree’s defense system against damage to its bark. These monkeys are the only primates that regularly dig holes to tap this coma (often done in response to insect bites). Marmosets have relatively large incisors that they use as chisels to collect gum. Marmosets anchor their upper incisors in the bark and measure it up with the lower incisors. The amount of gum retrieved is usually very small and marmosets only spend about two minutes at one hole.
At the zoo, they are fed canned marmoset food, bananas, grapes, apples, string beans, fruit, and edible insects. They are also often given gum for enrichment purposes.
Geoffroy’s marmosets live in large social groups of up to 20 people (usually groups of eight to 10) in which the father, as well as other members of the group, provides extensive care for the young. Adult children can stay in groups and help care for their younger siblings.
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The species is sexually monogamous and the males fold their tails as a sexual display before copulation. The gestation period is about 4.5 months. Women have multiple births, usually twins. The twins are not identical, but they share the same placenta with a wide variety of blood from both fetuses – something called chimerism.
Habitat loss is the main threat to Geoffroy’s marmosets. There has been widespread destruction of the Atlantic forests, resulting in a small distribution, although populations remain high. Like many other small primates, they are sometimes collected for the pet trade. Open Access Policy Institutional Open Access Program Special Issues Guidelines Editorial Process Research and Publication Article Ethics Processing Fees Awards Benefits
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Baby Marmosets May Practice Their First Distinctive Cries In The Womb
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Department of Airway Immunology, Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Biomedical Research in End-Stage and Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Nicolai-Fuchs-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover , Germany
Received: 23 April 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
World’s Smallest Monkeys Give Birth To Tiny Twins At Twycross Zoo
Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are small non-human primates (NHPs) frequently used for respiratory research. Transgenic animal models of various lung diseases in marmosets have been developed in favor of Old World monkey models (OWM, eg, rhesus or cynomolgus monkey). The marmoset is about the same size as a mouse (350-450 g), easy to handle, and much easier to breed, maintain and manage colonies than OWMs. Unlike rodents, marmosets show a high degree of symmetry to humans, which is particularly evident in lung architecture and branching patterns. Lung diseases characterized by inflammation (eg, COPD) can be modeled in marmosets, and the species is also used to study bacterial and viral infections. Infection models for human myeloidosis, tuberculosis, anthrax, as well as SARS-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV), influenza A virus and adenovirus have already been established. Toxicology studies often use marmoset monkeys for the benefit of immunologically identical twins produced by a Callitrichinae-specific placentation variant, which ultimately causes blood clots. Relatively new approaches in gene therapy use marmosets to study respiratory disease. In this review we will review current respiratory marmoset models and their implications for biomedical research.
The common marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus ) is a New World primate, native to northeastern Brazil and a member of the Callitrichidae family. This species has several advantages over Old World monkeys (OWM, eg, rhesus (Macaca mulatta) or cynomolgus monkeys (M. fascicularis)). Its low body weight (350-450 g), for example, is comparable to the size of a rat (Figure 1) and makes marmosets an easy-to-handle and economically attractive NHP species for biomedical research [1 , 2]. Early sexual maturity and high reproductive efficiency allow rapid breading capabilities and thus animal supply . Because of hematopoietic chimerism, marmosets but not OWM, give birth to immunologically compatible pairs, enabling matched control study designs [ 4 ]. The absence of herpesvirus B (Macacine herpesvirus 1) in New World monkeys (NWMs), a virus that is highly lethal to humans and commonly found in Asian macaques [2, 5], is rare in colonies marmoset. Table 1 provides an overview of species comparisons between marmosets and classically used Old World monkeys.
Figure 1. Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are small non-human primates with a body weight of 350-450 g. Adult marmosets in the facilities of the German Prime Minister’s Center.
Marmosets are used as a non-rodent species in preclinical toxicology and safety studies. The close homology to humans makes the marmoset an appropriate translational model for human metabolism, enzyme structure and pharmacodynamic effects [ 3 , 6 ]. In addition, the high congruence of the marmoset structures and human immunity provides a basis for translational models to predict human diseases, eg, to test new biopharmaceuticals specific to humans. aim at their target in non-primate species [7, 8].
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The use of marmosets as animal models for human lung diseases is based on the human lung parenchyma composition and lung architecture [ 9 ]. Similar to humans and in contrast to the monopodial branching pattern in rodents, the bronchial tree of the marmoset shows divergent branching [ 10 , 11 ]. The alveolar size of marmosets is comparable to the bronchioles walls of some small islets of other primates and monkeys, as well as the highly alveolarized respiratory bronchioles found in the marmoset alike . In addition, the marmoset nasal cavity closely resembles the shape of the human nasal cavity, requiring translational breathing studies with high predictive power for the human condition [ 12 ].
A comparable distribution of goblet cells, Clara cells and secretory cells of mixed type has been described in the tracheobronchial tree of humans and marmosets, but the proximal and distal airway epithelium of marmosets contains more Clara cells and fewer goblet cells .. Another difference from the human situation is the distribution pattern of ciliated cells in the marmoset trachea in which ciliated cells are almost restricted to cartilage-free regions . In addition, ultrastructural changes of respiratory epithelial cilia are a common background found in marmosets and should be taken into account when analyzing data related to respiratory studies [ 15 ].
Figure 2. Bronchoscopy, a common respiratory technique, is possible in marmosets. (A) The mouth of an anesthetized adult marmoset is opened with a laryngoscope. The bronchoscope is inserted into the trachea and advanced into the central bronchus under video control. The lungs can be partially aspirated through the bronchoscope to obtain BAL fluid. Bronchoscopic view of (B) trachea, (C) bifurcating trachea, (D) left and (E) right main bronchus. Note the original branches of the tracheal bronchus of the right cranial lobe.
Similarities in human and marmoset neural airway responses, eg, comparable response to electric field stimulation, have been supported in studies of airway physiology in marmosets over rodent models . Nevertheless, many aspects have not yet been studied and other results may lead to uncertainty in the use of marmoset monkeys. For example, there are conflicting results regarding bronchoconstriction with sensory neuron activators.
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